FINE JEWELRY DICTIONARY
Our goal at VintageDiamondRing.com is to educate the consumer about every facet of the diamond and antique jewelry industry. Here is a list of the many terms often used in the jewelry industry we think you should know.
Abraded culet: A chipped or scratched culet within a diamond.
Abrasion: A bruise or scratch on the surface of a diamond.
AGS: American Gem Society. Professional organization formed in 1934 by several independent jewelers. Known for starting cut grade. Antwerp: diamond-cutting center in Belgium.
Appraisal: A monetary evaluation, usually performed for insurance purposes by a gemologist.
Baguette: A rectangular cut diamond with squared corners.
Bearding: Small feather-like cracks along the girdle of a diamond. Bezel: Setting which holds a diamond or gemstone in place on all sides at the girdle. Blemish: A scratch on the surface of a diamond. Brilliance: The intensity and amount of light reflecting from inside a diamond or gemstone. Brilliant cut: Brilliant cut diamond which has 57 or 58 facet cuts.
Cabochon: A gemstone cut that creates a dome shape with no facets.
Carat: Unit of weight for diamond and gemstones.
Clarity: Measures the degree to which a gemstone is free from flaws.
Cleavage: Tendency of a crystalline material to break in certain directions.
Clarity Enhancement: Imperfections that are treated in diamonds are with the insertion of a material with the same optical properties as diamonds to fill a tiny fracture.
Cloud: Group of tiny white inclusions in a diamond.
Color: In diamonds, the color scale ranges from D (colorless) to Z (yellow).
Comfort Fit: Ring design in which the edges of the shank are rounded for maximum comfort.
Crown: The facets or portions of a diamond or gemstone located above the girdle.
Culet: A small polished facet located at the base of a diamond or gemstone.
Cultured Pearl: pearls which have been created artificially.
Cut: refers to the geometric proportion that dictates the reflection and refraction of light within a stone.
Depth: The distance from a gemstones table to its culet (top to bottom).
Depth percentage: The measurement of a diamond or gemstones depth.
Dispersion: The separation of white light into the full color spectrum. Often described as the fire or rainbow when discussing diamonds.
Emerald Cut: Rectangular gemstone with cut corners.
Enhanced diamond: Diamonds that have been treated with the insertion of a material or lazer drilled.
Extinction: Dark or black spots in colored stone.
Facet: surface of a diamond or gemstone.
Faceted Girdle: Girdle that has been cut with facets.
Fancy Shapes: A gemstone shape other than a round diamond.
Feather: Internal flaw or inclusion in a diamond or gemstone.
Fire: The sparkles of flashes of spectral colors emitted from diamonds and other gemstones.
Flaw: internal inclusion or fracture of a diamond or gemstone.
Flawless: a diamond or gemstone that lacks internal or external blemishes when using a 10 power magnification or microscope.
Fluorescence: Luminescence that appears when certain diamonds are exposed to ultraviolet light.
Fracture: Cracks, feathers or chips in a diamond or gemstone.
Full cut: Gemstone with 58 facets.
Gemologist: Gemstone specialist trained in gem or diamond field.
Gemology: study of diamonds and gemstones.
GIA: Gemological Institute of America. Non-profit organization specializing in grading diamonds and gemstones.
Girdle: The narrow rim around a gemstone separating the crown from the pavilion.
HPHT: treatment used for off color diamonds involving high pressure and high temperature improving color and clarity of a diamond.
Imperfection: inclusions within a diamond or gemstone.
Inclusion: Visible internal flaws in a diamond or gemstone.
Irradiation: Treatment performed on diamonds and gemstones to enhance color. K Karat: Standard measure of gold purity.
Laser Drilling: Treatment used to enhance a stones clarity.
Loupe: Small magnifying glass used for analyzing and viewing diamonds and gemstones.
Luster: The appearance of a materials surface, as determined by the quantity and quality of light reflected.
Marquise: Oval shaped gemstone with ends sharpened to points.
Milgrain: Tiny beads of metal used to decorate bands of metal especially used to perfection in the early 1900's.
Mounting: Method of holding gemstones and diamonds in place with prongs.
Oiling: Temporary treatment used to enhance the color of a diamond or gemstone.
Opera: A strand of pearls 32 inches in length.
Pave Setting: Style of setting smaller diamonds as close together as possible.
Pavilion: The portion of a gemstone located below the girdle.
Pit: Indentation on the surface of a diamond or gemstone.
Platinum: Precious metal that is far harder than gold.
Plot: Diagram of a diamonds clarity characteristics.
Point: One-one hundredth (0.01) of a carat.
Princess Cut: Square cut diamond with the faceting of a round diamond.
Prong : finger bent around the girdle of a gemstone to hold it securely in place.
Proportion: Mathematical representation of a diamond or gemstones symmetry.
Recutting: Refinishing a polished stone in order to either repair or improve the stones clarity.
Reflection: Light rebounding off the polished surfaces of a diamond or gemstone.
Refraction: Bending of light waves within a diamond.
Rough: An uncut or unpolished diamond or gemstone.
Setting: Method of holding gemstone or diamond in place.
Shank: Part of the ring that encircles the finger.
Single Cut: a table with appx 16 facets.
Solitaire Ring: ring containing a single diamond or gemstone.
Symmetry: Uniformity of a gemstones cut and facets.
Synthetic Stone: gemstone grown in a lab.
Table: Largest facet on a gemstone and diamond. The table sits atop the crown and allows light to enter and exit. creating the stones brilliance.
Table percentage: Diameter of a gemstone divided by the size of the table.
Tutti Frutti: Jewelry set with multi colored gems carved in shapes of leaves, flowers and berries and often in a basket design.